HPV Risk Factors In Men
There is a 60% lower adjusted odd of a man’s partner getting any HPV type, and an 80% lower adjusted odd of getting a high-risk HPV type when comparing men who use condoms to those who never use condoms.
The consistent use of condoms does decrease the chance of a man’s partner getting HPV.
Smoking eleven or more cigarettes per day (versus not smoking at all) is associated with genital warts (OR 1.9).
Smoking associated with penile cancer (OR 4.5) and anal cancer (OR 3.9).
The younger age of first intercourse is associated with HPV infection at later ages.
There are approximately 60 HPV strains or genotypes known to infect the genital tract.
Over 6M people in the United States acquire a congenital HPV infection each year.
13 of the approximately 60 strains which infect the genital area are the high risk or oncogenic strain.
Smoking among men has been associated with their wives’ cervical cancer risk, even after adjustment of wives’ pack years of smoking and other factors. The husband’s smoking is mildly associated with cervical cancer.
HPV infection is more likely to be found at a younger age (18-24 years old) rather than older age (over 35 years of age).
Smoking has been identified as a risk factor for HPV detection in men. Smoking has been reported to be associated with persistent HPV infection. Smoking has also been identified with cancer of the anus and penis in men.
The use of condoms during the past three months has a stronger protective effect for the high-risk oncogenic HPV types then for the low-risk HPV types.
Younger age is associated with greater odds of developing both high-risk and low-risk HPV strains.
These have reported lower prevalence of HPV for those who always condoms (20%) compared to those who never used condoms (26%).
High associate economic status and condom use are protective and associated with decrease chance of acquiring HPV infection.
Lifetime and recent number of female sexual partners, smoking and lack of condom use are the three risk factors most strongly associated with a man’s chance of getting an HPV infection.
The identification of multiple HPV types in men is a risk factor for persistent infection.
Circumcision offers a protective effect on HPV persistence. Men who are circumcised have a decreased chance of testing positive HPV over time.
Current smoking along with having multiple HPV types or any high-risk HPV type in men is an important risk factor for HPV persistence in men.
The most consistently reported risk factor of HPV infection in men is the number of lifetime female sexual partners. There are several studies reporting association also with the recent number of female sexual partners.
Factors associated with prevalent HPV infections in men include current and past sexual behavior, circumcision status, lack of condom use, history of other sexually transmitted infections, race and ethnicity, and education levels.