HPV Infection In Men #2
HPV acquisition has not been observed to differ by genital sites. The three sites studies were the glans, shaft of the penis and scrotum. This suggests a genital infection of the men is mostly multifocal and does not have demonstrable site preference.
Detection of HPV DNA in urine is specifically lower than samples from genital sites which include the glans, shaft of penis or the scrotum. This may be because of the different types of cells lying in the urethra (transitional cells) versus the external genital areas (squamous epithelial cells). In addition, HPV DNA detected in urine may represent contamination acquired when the urine passes through the urethral meatus, implying that there is not a large residual of HPV infection in the urethral canal itself.
Finger infections in people with genital warts are more common than would be expected by chance.
Co-infection of multiple HPV types is also known to be common in women.
Unlike most STD’s, HPV infections is not restricted to “core groups” (i.e. groups of individuals who engage in high-risk sexual behaviors). HPV infections are commonly detected in individuals who have few sexual partners.
In a 24-month cumulative incidence of HPV infection in young men was nearly twice as seen in a similar group of female students. This is an important factor to keep in mind when formulating the strategies in order to minimize the prevention of transmission of HPV infections to female adolescents in young women.
The 24 month cumulative incidence of HPV in men in one study (62%) was higher than that reported for sexually active university students in women (38% – 43%) range which was approximately 40% in each of two different studies.
The duration in HPV infection is shorter in men.
The presence of HPV DNA on the fingers or under the fingernails suggests that autoinoculation generally has to be considered as a possible mode of transmission of HPV infection. The presence of HPV on their fingers may also be due, however, to contamination by the persons own genitalia or that of a recent sexual partner. Although there is information suggesting HPV can be transmitted by non-penetrative sexual contact routes, clean bold finger-vulvar contact, it is not clear whether HPV under the fingernail tips is a significant source of infection.
There are conflicting reports as to whether there is a risk of HPV infection associated with circumcision status. There are studies that report that circumcision is protective against prevalent infection and others that there is not. In the study of the HPV infection in young men, circumcision status was not associated with infection.
The incidence of multiple HPV types did not differ by circumcision status in young men.
The study of the acquisition of an HPV infection in young men was influenced by a report of past smoking.
The results of a University-based study of young men may not be generalized with other populations of men, including those who are older, those of different social economic status and/or educational levels, those who have HIV infection, have sex with other men, or people who have a history of high-risk behavior.
The higher incidence of HPV infection in men may be due to differences in sexual behavior, the relative ease of acquiring samples from the external male genitalia versus internal genital sites in women, or increased sensitivity of the HPV testing methods which were used in the men.
The presence of HPV16 that has been found in the congenital and finger sites suggests autoinoculation may occur.
The study of young university men found that:
Genital infections are common and multifocal in young men.
HPV acquisition has not demonstrable genital-site preference.
Detection of HPV infection under the fingernail tips is common.
High incidence HPV-16 infection and of sexual multiple HPV types that was seen in men is also consistent with the observations seen in women.
Within 24 months after a young man (19-20 years of age) had been followed who had not previously had an HPV infection, two-thirds of the men had acquired one or more of over 30 different congenital types of HPV.