The anus has been documented as the source of an HPV infection of the cervix. In a similar manner, the anus has been demonstrated to be a source of infection of the cervix.
The scrotum may be an important source of reservoir for HPV infections in the penis that can be subsequently be transmitted to their partners.
The strains found in oral infections do not consistently match the strains found in the genitals or hands. This is a surprising but documented finding.
The transmission from the female hand to the male genitalia has been demonstrated.
Women who practice anal intercourse have a higher risk for HPV infection of the anus. Nonetheless, several studies have found anal HPV in women with no history of anal intercourse.
The under reporting of anal sex is a real phenomenon which occurs and there are no reliable measures as to the extent that this occurs.
The likelihood that an anal infection serves as a source for cervical infection is not convincing.
The relative risk (RR) of acquiring a cervical HPV infection after anal infection with HPV was 8.8 (= 880%).
The relative risk (RR) of acquiring an anal HPV infection after a cervical infection of HPV of the same HPV strain is 20.5 (= 2005%).
Other sexual and non-sexual routes of transmission with non-penetrated sex are with inoculation to the fingers. The presence of the same HPV type of strains on the fingertips or hands which are present in the genital area of men and women are an indication that finger transmission is a possible source of transmission of HPV infection. The HPV presence on the fingers is most likely originated from the genital area and is less likely an HPV infection of genital strains on the fingers.
Non-penetrative sexual contact between the female anus and the scrotum explains a certain number of scrotal HPV infections.
It is common for anal and cervical HPV infections to occur consecutively, to suggest that the cervix (vagina) serves as a source of HPV infection of the anus and vice-versa.
Vaginal discharge is frequently found in the perineum, the area between the vagina and the perianal area. The spread of vaginal discharge containing HPV infection is the potential source of HPV infection to the anal area.
The use of toilet paper may facilitate the transmission of vaginal discharge to the anus.